Notes and Errata - Pages 983-1079
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- 1 ☽ Notes and Errata
- 1.1 Endnote 3
- 1.2 Endnote 5
- 1.3 Endnote 5a
- 1.4 Endnote 6
- 1.5 Endnote 7
- 1.6 Endnote 8
- 1.7 Endnote 12a
- 1.8 Endnote 13
- 1.9 Endnote 17
- 1.10 Endnote 19
- 1.11 Endnote 21
- 1.12 Endnote 23
- 1.13 Endnote 24 · JAMES O. INCANDENZA: A FILMOGRAPHY
- 1.14 Endnote 82
- 1.15 Endnote 110 · Hal and Orin Discuss Québecois Politics
- 1.15.1 Page 1004
- 1.15.2 Page 1005
- 1.15.3 Page 1006
- 1.15.4 Endnote 110d
- 1.15.5 Page 1006 (cont'd)
- 1.15.6 Page 1007
- 1.15.7 Page 1008
- 1.15.8 Page 1009
- 1.15.9 Page 1010
- 1.15.10 Page 1011
- 1.15.11 Page 1012
- 1.15.12 Page 1013
- 1.15.13 Page 1014
- 1.15.14 Endnote 110h
- 1.15.15 Page 1014 (cont'd)
- 1.15.16 Endnote 110i
- 1.15.17 Page 1014 (cont'd)
- 1.15.18 Page 1015
- 1.15.19 Page 1016
- 1.15.20 Page 1017
- 1.15.21 Page 1018
- 1.15.22 Page 1019
- 1.15.23 Page 1020
- 1.15.24 Page 1021
- 1.15.25 Page 1022
- 1.16 Endnote 145 · Found Drama
- 1.17 Endnote 162
- 1.18 Endnote 211
- 1.19 Endnote 234 · Excerpts From Orin's Interview With Moment
- 1.20 Endnote 231 · Inositol
- 1.21 Endnote 269 · Steeply-Bain Correspondence
- 1.22 Endnote 304 · The Train Game
- 1.23 Endnote 321 · Hal's DMZ Dream
- 1.24 Endnote 324 · John Wayne loses it
- 1.25 Endnote 332 · Pemulis just slays deLint
☽ Notes and Errata
In geometry, a cardioid is a plane curve produced by tracing the path of a chosen point of a circle which rolls around a fixed circle. The cardioid shape of E.T.A. has one cusp, i.e., a point on the curve that is not smooth. The r referred to by the narrator here is the radius of the moving circle.
German for "superhuman"
Brandeis is a Jewish-founded university in Waltham, Mass., about nine miles west of Boston, named for Louis Dembitz Brandeis (1856-1941) the first Jewish Supreme Court justice.
abbreviation for Latin nota bene, i.e., "note well," stated before an important example or corollary point
involuntary eye movement
French for "warehouse," this is where foreign merchandise can be purchased duty-free
Halcion (still available in Canada, unbelievably, still)
It's also still available here, though the U.K. has banned it since 1991.
Here meaning "smoothed out" and misspelled, beveling is the making of 45º angles where perpendiculars meet.
As a dickie is designed to give the appearance of wearing a tie, Wallace uses this word here to deal with drugs that mimic the effects of other drugs.
central nervous system
gamma hydroxybutric acid
now more commonly known as GHB
DMZ is another made-up drug. M.P. refers to its street name, Madame Psychosis.
another mushroom-based hallucinogen, like psilocybin
dimethylsulfoxide, a common solvent used in many laboratories. It is readily absorbed through the skin, taking with it whatever it has dissolved.
"...Continental Controlled Substances Act of Y.T.M.P., O.N.A.N.D.E.A.'s hierarchy of analgesics/antipyretics/axiolytics..."
There is no such act, obviously. Y.T.M.P. is Year of the Tucks Medicated Pad. The second acronym is Organization of North American Nations Drug Enforcement Agency. Analgesics are painkillers. Antipyretics are fever-reducing drugs, and anxiolytics are anxiety-reducing drugs.
piece of information, the singular form of the word "data"
French: A person of terrible importance
Latin abbreviation for quod vide ("which see"), used to direct a reader elsewhere in a book. Here we are directed to...
United States Department of Defense
Endnote 24 · JAMES O. INCANDENZA: A FILMOGRAPHY
a lens with a crescent-shaped section
spoken to oneself
early stages of something
D W Griffith
Film Director whose films include 'Tolerance' and 'Birth of a Nation'; Wikipedia entry
Japanese film maker - see article
An arrangement of mirrors for reflecting sunlight from a distant point to an observation station.
Latin name for the Black Widow spider
A form of chronic pain where pain is felt in a nerve without stimulation of pain receptors. Difficult to diagnose and treat.
Strong sexual desire
Jacques Godbout, a French-Canadian filmmaker and documentarian.
as in L.L. Bean, a privately-held mail-order and retail company based in Freeport, Maine, United States, specializing in clothing and outdoor recreation equipment.
Night Watch plaid
A pattern of plaid. See right.
Endnote 110 · Hal and Orin Discuss Québecois Politics
a brand name of shoes
cleaned with a squeegee
Rest and Relaxation
Latin: by virtue of one's office
'The Yellow Rose (of Texas)'
Dickinson's poems can also be read to the meter of "Mary Had a Little Lamb."
a man's voice when he pitches it falsely high to sound like a woman
turning pages quickly
Ample make this bed
The full poem is here.
that part of a flower that is analogous to the female reproductive organs
helicopter-sized; the Sikorsky R-4 was the first mass-produced helicopter
I have no idea.
not clearly expressed or presented
second to last
complaining (pronounced to rhyme with "jing")
eating of bread and water only
tending to ward of hardening of tissues (as of arteries, here)
Page 1006 (cont'd)
to talk incoherently or aimlessly
nonstandard or incorrect grammatical usage
20 X 25 centimeter
very close to 8" x 10"
a character on the television show The Beverly Hillbillies
a clause, usually in a document, making a stipulation or qualification
"...isn't even iambic, much less quatrameter/trimeter..."
This is to say that the poetry of Dickinson is not in iambic pentameter, also known as verse. This is the style of poetry Shakespeare is written in ("Now is the winter of our discontent") -- ten syllables, and five iambs (feet, or beats) per line (thus pentameter). Quatrameter/trimeter would be the rhythm scheme of "Yellow Rose of Texas" and "Mary Had a Little Lamb" (although note that the first foot of the latter is incomplete).
a synonym for a drop shot, which in tennis is a light tap just over the net
the more conspicuous of two possible choices
like an angel
appealing to sexual tastes
to move rapidly along a surface
a knight on a quest to prove his chivalry
French: so to speak
a prayer and hymn book
"Kitchens and heat..."
which is to say, if you can't take the heat, stay out of the kitchen
German for "ringer," taking that in either of the meanings it has in English
a little over 7.25 pounds
ground tobacco, which is inhaled rather than smoked or chewed
as in Philips Academy Andover, alma mater of both Presidents Bush
"Dickinson's about as Transcendalist as Poe."
which is to say, not at all
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Nelson Ackerman Eddy (1901-1967) was an American singer and movie star. As far as what he looked like, see right.
Rose Marie, 1936, is probably his most-remembered film. His definitive portrayal of the steadfast Mountie became a popular icon, frequently spoofed in cartoons and TV skits. When the Mounties retired their classic red jackets and hat in 1970, except for ceremonial attire, hundreds of newspapers accompanied the story with a photo of Nelson Eddy as Sgt. Bruce in Rose Marie, made 34 years earlier. WP
equestrian jaspers: probably means jodhpurs
the looking at extremely small things (nano- being the prefix for "one-billionth") through a microscope
This is probably a reference to André de Thevet (1502-1590), a French priest and explorer. Though never in Canada, he relied on French-Canadian explorers' work for his own voyages to South America.
"...the 5 on the French Achievement boards..."
The highest possible score on the French Advanced Placement Exam (for which one can receive college credit) is 5.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (1740-1795), was the Scottish biographer of Samuel Johnson.
a very large breast size
acuteness of perception
in the womb
a drug developed to treat morning sickness in pregnant women that ended up causing babies to be born missing limbs
one of the largest magazine publishers in the country, owned by Advance Publications (the Newhouse family) and founded by Condé Montrose Nast (1873-1942), an American publisher
here meaning simply "to spoil"
a fictional identity created for a person, narrator in a book, etc.
French: of the (masculine)
a lake in Gatineau Park, near Chelsea, Québec
This is probably Jacques Parizeau (born 1930), a former Premier of Québec and proponent of Québecois sovereignty.
the capital of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island
This is probably a misspelling of the surname of Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (born 1934), Prime Minister of Canada from 1993 to 2003.
Acadia is the traditional name for what is now (in part) eastern Québec. Zionism is used here as a synonym for nationalism, rather than with its specific Jewish connotations
"On ne parle d'Anglais ici."
French: English is not spoken here
the capital of Canada
"Permettez Nous Partir, Permettez Nous Être."
French: Allow us to leave, allow us to be.
the capital of Canadian province of Manitoba
UV standing for ultraviolet (as in light), this is probably a tanning booth.
"Nous v. La Plupart Toujours"
French: Us versus the majority always
a kingdom of southern Africa, existing as an enclave entirely within the Republic of South Africa
This is the Union of South Africa, which was formed in 1910 as a British colony and tried to annex Lesotho to it. Because of the imposition of apartheid laws in S. Africa, the annexation failed.
before the war, here the U.S. Civil War
Page 1014 (cont'd)
Plains of Abraham
a reference to the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, part of the French and Indian Wars, which ended in a decisive British victory of the French
'La Guerre des Britanniques et des Sauvages'
French: The War of the British and the Savages
a reference to the Battle of Carillon, fought at Fort Ticonderoga
Page 1014 (cont'd)
treasure taken from a defeated party
On September 13, 1759, Québec fell to the British.
North American Free Trade Agreement
The word more often used is "Rubenesque," but this refers to the women in paintings by Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), the Flemish artist. His women were usually voluptuous, not to say plump.
more often used as a noun, offensively referring to a retarded person
See above, Rubensian.
a reference to the GULAG prison system of the Soviet Union
French elision of "n'est-ce pas?" i.e., "right?"
a brand name of benzocaine used for tooth pain
Orin probably means to say "phalanges."
a road in Montreal
St. Jean-Baptiste Day
another name for la fête nationale du Québec
thriving without oxygen
scrawny; Hal is probably using it to mean "thin," as in a line of argumentation
Brazilian Nuevo Contras
These would be "new" contras, the old ones having been U.S.-funded anti-communist guerrillas in Nicaragua in the 1980s. Note, though, that Nuevo being a Spanish word would not be a likely name for a Brazilian group (where Brazilian Portuguese is spoken).
The Noie Störkraft's? Shining Path's? The Belgian CCC's?
Noie Störkraft is Swedish "New Great Power"; it does not appear to be a new organization, though Störkraft is the name of a skinhead band from Sweden. The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso in Spanish) is the Communist Party of Peru, which has waged guerrilla warfare against the Peruvian government since 1980. CCC is a French acronym for Communist Combatant Cells; they were eliminated as a terrorist group in 1986.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
wobbled shrieking figure in the Munch lithograph
to append to the end of something
consequent or concomitant
probably a misspelling of chloracne
hallucinations wherein one smells things that aren't there
a large cleaver-like cutting tool
attacks and pillaging by feral infants (see footnote 304, pp. 1055ff, about them)
another name for carbolic acid
probably a reference to the Bay of Fundy
i.e., the straw that broke the camel's back
a type of boat shoe
i.e., it takes its full toll on you
perhaps Constantine I, by tradition first Christian emperor of Rome
French for "shit"
having to do with maps
Canadian MPs don't wear wigs, though barristers (lawyers) and judges do.
bone of dissension
Orin means "bone of contention."
probably a malapropism, although it could mean "to un-besmirch"
To gerrymander is to divide an area into electoral districts favorable to one party over another.
more properly cui bono, Latin for "who benefits?"
a state of nervous excitement
to curve like a sickle
There is a tradition of separatism in Alberta.
a town in Minnesota and home to Bob Dylan, on Lake Superior about 150 miles north of the Twin Cities
i.e., as Vichy France, which was a puppet government to the Nazis
German for "annexation," it most often refers to Nazi Germany's annexation of Austria in 1938.
Orin seems to be using this term as a plural of "mayhem."
members of the Parti Québecois
Prime Minister (of Canada)
French: to go, to leave
here meaning haphazard
infecting with botulism
a type of switch
In poetry, an anapest is a trisyllable metrical foot of the following pattern: two unstressed syllables, followed by one long or stressed syllable. (Eg the line "'Twas the night before Christmas, and all through the house" contains four anapestic feet.)
Endnote 145 · Found Drama
An invented, non-existent faux-academic style of film on which James O. Incandenza lectured and received artistic grants, created to lampoon the academic film theory community. Found Drama was not captured on film; rather, Incandenza and close friends "got out a Boston metro phone book and tore a White Pages page out at random and thumbtacked it to the wall and then [Incandenza] would throw a dart at it from across the room. ... And the name it hit becomes the subject of the Found Drama. And whatever happens to the protagonist with the name you hit with the dart for ... the next hour and a half is the Drama."
ne pas à la mode
French: not in style
When this term is used w/r/t Himself's work, it is probably referring to French New Wave, although there were several other "New Waves" in film.
I'm unable to identify whether this person is real or not.
apparently a created genre
inactivity caused by equal opposing forces
i.e., junior faculty at universities who are on tenure track
According to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, this word means "representing correctly the relations of colors as found in a subject; isochromatic."
This neologism would seem to have the sense of the study or condition of moving backward.
a real psychiatric hospital in Belmont, Mass., about eight miles west-northwest of Boston
Duquette at M.I.T.
There is no such person at M.I.T.
There is no such person at Brandeis.
a Baconian pope with his hat on fire
Referring to the work of 20th century figurative painter Francis Bacon and his "screaming pope" paintings.
to bribe or induce someone to commit a crime or misdeed
Endnote 234 · Excerpts From Orin's Interview With Moment
Endnote 231 · Inositol
the capitalization of both inositol and mannitol is inappropriate. It is not a B-vitamin but at one time was thought to be one, "B8." I think from context that cyanocobalamin was intended.
Terrence Rafferty was a film critic for the New Yorker magazine.
National Public Radio
make repeated demands on
the street in New York famous for its advertising firms
Orin probably means "introversion."
a drafting tool
here used to mean "very strict"
produced or formed by fission
capable of producing disease
Orin means "anecdote."
as in "pièce de resistance," the punchline or main point
as in the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse from the Book of Revelation
Boston Public Library
Endnote 269 · Steeply-Bain Correspondence
'After my own parents were horribly killed on the Jamaica Way commuter road one morning in the freak crash of a radio traffic-report helicopter...'
Lateral Alice Moore was handicapped when the news helicopter she flew in crashed onto a highway. It could have been the same accident as the one to which Bain refers here.
James O. Incandenza
probably referring to MMDA
immature in its kind
a codpiece is a pouch at the crotch (covering the male genetalia) of tight-fitting breeches, popular during the Renaissance
Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909) was a British poet whose work had themes of homosexuality and sadomasochism.
Boston's Roxbury and Mattapan districts
two lower-income, primarily African American and Hispanic neighborhoods in Boston
appropriate with regard to the current circumstances
fairly high-sodium way
i.e., with a grain (or more) of salt
serving some purpose
Gretel the Cross-Sectioned Dairy Cow
Cornell University apparently has a cow whose stomachs you can see in action.
in psychology, dependence on other people or another person
avoiding the truth by not directly answering a question
"...as if from the Rose Garden..."
like the President of the U.S. answering a question from a reporter
shown to be false or unfounded
relating to a fungus of the genus Candida
a small lump or residual part
probably a reference to Dr. Samuel Johnson, the lexicographer
[sic] for "Steeply"
unintelligent, foolish, empty
[sic] for "Steeply"
Adult Children of Alcoholics
a support group for teenage children of alcoholics
Adult Children of Narcotics Anonymous
ACOG is most commonly the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, but in this context it probably stands for Adult Children of Gamblers.
chronically fatigued and weak
Bain gets Steeply's name wrong yet again.
branching or forking
accessories or equipment
feeling of resentment
a burden, literally a large seabird, from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
another mistake with Steeply's name
having various meanings
This isn't even close to Steeply's name.
Endnote 304 · The Train Game
An overflowing closet was a running gag on the old-time radio show Fibber McGee and Molly.
smelling a rat in the woodpile
Rats often use woodpiles as cover for their burrows, as discussed here.
B.P.L. ArchFax database search
Possibly: Boston Public Library Archival Facsimiles.
Walled. From the Latin murare - to wall off.
Wikipedia - Sudetenland
G. T. Day, M.S.
Geoffrey Day, of Ennet House, who claims to have "manned the helm of a Scholarly Quarterly" at "some jr. college up the Expressway in Medford" (272). Before the author is mentioned, the article is said to have come from "someplace called Bayside Community College up I-93 in Medford." Wild Conceits, the publication, is said to be edited by the author of the article Struck is ripping off.
Vishnu is the preserver/maintainer god of the Hindu Trimurti.
Latin: To whose benefit?
a misprint of gestalt
the addition of fluoride to public drinking- (tap-)water supplies to reduce tooth decay among the population; home filtration systems (such as Brita manufactures) can remove the flouride and thus eliminate the benefit
les passages à niveau de voie ferrée
the level crossings of railway line
Two hundred sixteen
216 is the cube of 6; thus the preliminary round would yield Les Trente-Six (36) semifinalists and the second round would produce six finalists attendants longtemps ses tours (French: "waiting a long time for their turns
Le Culte de Baiser Sans Fin
French: the cult of the kiss without end, or (as translated in the following paragraph), "the Cult of the Endless Kiss"
Most likely John "N.R." Wayne's brother.
Endnote 321 · Hal's DMZ Dream
Rise Over Run
The slope (m) of a line, expressed as its "rise" (variance along the y axis) divided by its run (variance along the x axis); equivalent in calculus to the first derivative.
This concept is explained here.
the process by which one determines the first derivative of a mathematical function
Function x, exponent n, the derivative's going to be nx + x(n-1)
Permulis appears to have misspoken. The derivative of x to the nth power is n times x to the (n - 1) power, not nx plus x to the (n - 1)th power.
a recording or performance of a song that was first recorded or made popular by somebody else
Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry, a means of drug detection
bacteria that live in the intestines and aid in digestion
Verdun Protestant Hospital
now called Douglas Mental Health Institute
malaprop or just really bad French for "you know what"
Nabisco's peanut-butter sandwich cookies
a malaprop; he means impetus
probably some sort of depressants
dioxygen, or oxygen gas as it exists in its natural state; ozone is O3
Endnote 324 · John Wayne loses it
to spend time idly
malaprop or misspelling of "camphorated," i.e., contained camphor
consisting of rich, arable soil
Page 1066 (cont'd)
a circular arrangement
plural of "funiculus," i.e., part of the spinal cord
OED: the outermost point on the angle of the lower jaw on each side.
neologism, having no collops or fat, more or less
referring to the lattissimus dorsi muscles
neologism, Nordic, which is to say blond-haired and blue-eyed
an arsenal, particularly used by physicians to refer to drugs or treatments
a port city or other place for storing/dispensing, importing/exporting, collecting/distributing goods
(American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th edition, henceforth AHDEL5) penis
(or welsh) not paying a debt or wager
a tennis game ending in three sets, rather than two. So Pemulis needs to win a set against Freer to make it to the tournament.
the word has a remarkable array of meanings, here used to mean "irritant"
This is "a strong cord made by twisting the dried intestines of animals, as sheep, used in stringing musical instruments and tennis rackets, for surgical sutures, etc." (Random House Unabridged Dictionary).
"...his late great Da's..."
Clearly Pemulis has no idea that his brother was molested by their father.
neologism, of or pertaining to prescription medication
full of thin mucous
how 17 can actually go into 56 way more than 3.294 times
This recalls Bette Midler's anecdote (recorded on her 1977 album Live at Last, told while channeling the late Sophie Tucker:
"I will never forget it. It was on the occasion of Ernie's eightieth birthday and in honor of the occasion he married a twenty-year-old girl. And he rang me up the very next day and he said to me, 'Soph, Soph, I have just married myself a twenty-year-old girl! What do you think of that?!' And I said to him, 'Ernie, when I am eighty years old, I shall marry myself a twenty-year-old boy, and let me tell you something, Ernie! Twenty goes into eighty a hell of a lot more than eighty goes into twenty!'"
Recall that John (N.R.) Wayne is 17, while Avril Incandenza is 56, and the young tennis stud has obviously X'd the Academy matron more than three (or four) times.
(1926–2010) an Australian-born internationally renowned dramatic coloratura soprano (opera singer)
see note, p. 634
certain Arabs of the deserts of Arabia and the Levant
being on the receiving end of anal sex
black and white
Jackie Gleason (1916-1987) was one of the great comic actors of the 20th century.
actually a Hungarian name, which means "ruler"
neologism; brachiation is arboreal locomotion by use of the forelimbs/arms, Generally used where appropriate to refer to primates
one of the airports serving Paris
Page 1071 (cont'd)
a Latin logical term, meaning, roughly, "the means of denying"
DNA and RNA
A and G, T and C
adenine and guanine, thymine and cytosine, the neucleobase molecules that combine to form neucleotides, the building blocks of DNA
When the boulder's slipped all the way back to the bottom
a reference to the myth of Sisyphus
When the headless are blaming
a reference to "If," the poem by Rudyard Kipling: "If you can keep your head when all about you / Are losing theirs and blaming it on you..."
Probably this is the last name of Zoltán, previously citted, whose “name no one can pronounce.” The name may be taken from Mihály Csíkszentmihályi (born 1934), a prominent Hungarian-American psychologist. His son Christopher is on the faculty at MIT.
a proven statement used as a step in a mathematical proof
a town about 40 miles west-northwest of the Twin Cities
"directionless in a dark wood"
A reference to Dante's "Divine Comedy"'s first Canto of the Inferno.
"Leap like a knight of faith . . ."
A reference to Soren Kierkegaard's knight of faith. Kierkegaard, a theologian and philosopher, didn't think there could be any logical justification for believing in God. Instead the believer is required to take a leap of faith, so called because he (the believer) has no evidence for his convictions and thus must always, on some rational level, doubt them. In fact to Kierkegaard doubt defines faith, because if there were no doubt no leap of faith would be required in the first place, much like it doesn't require a leap of faith for you to believe you're actually reading this wikipedia entry right now, or that I'm not an alien sub rosa manipulating your mind for my own purposes.
"...Peano, Leibniz, Hilbert..."
Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932) was an Italian mathematician. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was a German polymath and one of the creators of calculus. David Hilbert (1862-1943) was a German mathematician.
"...Fourier, Gauss, LaPlace, Rickey..."
Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) was a French mathematician and physicist. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) was a German mathematician. Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (1749-1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer. Rickey would seem to refer to V. Frederick Rickey, though he is contemporary while the other named men are not.
"...Wiener, Reimann, Frege, Green..."
Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) was an American mathematician. Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866) was a German mathematician. Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) was a German mathematician and logician. Green is probably George Green (1793-1841), English mathematician and physicist.
adjective, relating to an episodic style of fiction dealing with the adventures of a rough and dishonest but appealing hero.
Endnote 332 · Pemulis just slays deLint
a corruption of "jerry-rigged" (a pejorative term about Germans), which basically means rigged in a makeshift, ad hoc manner
see note, page 527
neologism, descriptive of a mammal who deploys its nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some chordates (i.e., having a vertebral column) that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus (i.e., inner corner of the eye) for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.
56/17 (see note supra for page 1069)
"the leaflet about Wayne and Mrs. I." referred to earlier on the page (with the "deviant division")
eyepiece magnifying glasses used by jewellers
"may the road rise up to meet you..."
part of an old Irish blessing
a male demon that seduces female humans
Latin: nota bene, meaning "note well"